raw ginseng: the main root is spindle-shaped or cylindrical. The surface is grayish yellow, and the upper part or the whole has a thin and intermittent thick horizontal stripes and obvious longitudinal wrinkles, and the roots often have inconspicuous fine ridges. The rhizome (reed head) has adventitious roots and sparse dimple-like stem marks (reed bowl). Harder, the section is yellowish white. The aroma is specific, the taste is bitter and sweet. Raw sun ginseng: the main root is short and thick, with two roots and a herringbone shape. The surface is grayish yellow, the upper part has obvious fine spiral pattern, the root stem has fine bowl-shaped stem marks, and the root rhizome near the main root is smooth and has no stem marks, which is called round reed. There are sparse and slender whiskers on the roots. There are obvious ridges on the top.
[Chemical composition] Contains ginsenosides, among which dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins have the most significant activity, and are the main indicators for assessing the quality of ginseng, among which are mainly ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rf and ginsenoside Rg1.